Piles | Types of Piles | Advantages and Disadvantages Of piles , Concrete Piles, Steel Piles, Timber Piles, Composite Piles

What is Piles ?

It is a type of foundation system that are used to support super structure and sub structure both and transfer all their loads to the ground. They are typically used when the soil at the site is too weak to support the weight of the structure, or structure needs to be raised above ground level due to flooding, earthquake and other environmental factors. According to made of a variety of material Piles can be categories different type, and different advantages and disadvantages of piles including concrete pile, steel pile, timber pile, and composite materials piles, and can be driven into the ground or installed in a precast form both.

What is Concrete Piles?

Piles are generally made of reinforced concrete is called concrete Piles. Concrete piles are used in areas where the soil conditions are not suitable for traditional foundation methods. and can be driven or cast in situ its  depend upon condition of site. Concrete piles are an essential component of many construction projects, However, like any construction material or technique, concrete piles have both advantages and disadvantages. Concrete piles have more advantages, so that a popular choice for foundation systems is concrete piles.

Concrete are common used material in building construction. Pile made up of concrete is known as concrete piles.

Advantages Of Concrete Piles: –

  • Easy to install

Concrete piles are easy to install compared to another types of piles, it is depending on the site conditions, they can be driven or cast in situ. [What is concrete compaction] The construction process is faster and suitable than other types of piles, such as steel pile or timber pile, and requires minimum maintenance once times construction. Concrete pile does not require any special equipment for construction, It’s better option them a cost-effective option.

  • Strong and durable

Concrete piles are strong and durable, they can support for heavy loads to long period for without deformation or failure. This condition concrete pile makes them ideal for use in areas where difficult soil conditions, soil are loose and soft. The R.C.C. reinforced concrete construction of the pile provides excellent resistance to compression, bending and tension, ensuring stability in varying soil conditions.

  • Resistance to environment factor

Concrete piles are also resisted to moisture, chemical corrosion, and variation of temperature, such as environmental factors. Concrete piles are highly resisted to insect or fire, for various soil condition. Resist to environmental factors allows concrete piles to maintain their structural integrity for a long period.

  • High load bearing capacity

It has a very high load-bearing capacity, this nature makes them to support heavy loads. The reinforced concrete construction(R.C.C.)  of the piles allows to resist vertical and horizontal loads both, so that according to this ideal nature we are uses for heavy construction like,  bridges, buildings, and other structures. The high load-bearing capacity of concrete piles is also benefits in areas prone to natural disasters like earthquakes, as they can withstand important ground movements.

  • Versatility

Concrete piles are versatile in nature, and it can be used in various condition of soil, including clay, sand, and rock. They can also be used in that areas where groundwater table is high, and they are not affected by moisture condition. This advantage of concrete piles makes them an ideal choice for foundation systems in different types of construction projects.

  • Longevity

Concrete piles have a long service life, lasting for several decades without any deterioration. It’s provided a better resistance to corrosion, ensuring their longevity. The longevity nature of concrete pile is reducing the need for regular basics maintenance, In short period concrete pile are costlier but in long term. It’s a making them a cost-effective option.

  • Environmentally friendly

It is an environmentally friendly for compared to another foundation systems. Construction of concrete piles requires fewer natural resources compare to another types of piles, such as steel pile or timber piles. Important things are concrete piles are recyclable, reducing the environmental impact at the end of their service period.

Conclusion, Advantages of concrete piles.

  1. The main advantages of concrete piles are durability, and durability is independent of ground water level.
  2. They Can be cast to any length, size, and shapes.
  3. Concrete piles are used for marine works, without any special treatment of piles.
  4. Because of their large size and greater bearing capacity, number of piles are required less than timber piles.
  5. Concrete piles can be monolithically bonded into pile cup or grillage base.

Disadvantages Of Concrete Piles: –

  • High cost

The most demerits of concrete piles are costlier than another piles, but in long term concrete pile are cost-effective option because less service and approx. no maintenance cost are required. Concrete piles can be costlier than other types of piles, such as steel piles or timber piles, because it’s high material cost and skill labour are required to the construction. Additionally, the main key for increased the construction cost for using special equipment is required to install the piles so that reason the cost of overall construction budget (Tender) is high using concrete piles.

  • Limited length

Length of a concrete pile is limited due to its transportation restriction for precast piles used otherwise we used a cast in situ. It’s affected the depth of the foundation. In deep foundation longer concrete piles are required, and it’s required more steel reinforcement, adding to the overall cost. So deep foundations concrete piles may not be suitable for construction project.

  • Environmental impact

Construction of concrete piles has also impact an environmental, the primary ingredient of manufacturing of cement is concrete. It approximately responsible for 8% of global carbon emissions (Global warming). The ejection of raw materials such as sand, gravel, and limestone adverse effects on the environment, also habitat destruction and soil erosion. [Sedimentation tank]

  • Difficulties of removal

Once time concrete piles are constructed then very difficult to remove. This reason the concrete construction is designed for permanent basics and thinks about removal than removal can damage the concrete pile and structure and surrounding soil affect, leading to additional costs. When there is a need to clear the site for other construction activities or there may be difficulties in removing the development in the future. [Concrete Compaction]

  • Noise and vibration

The construction of concrete piles can create noise and vibration, which can be affect to nearby residents and businesses. The noise and vibration can also damage nearby structures.

Conclusion, Disadvantages of concrete piles.

  1. Concrete piles are very costly.
  2. They cannot be driven rapidly for joints; Cracks will be developed.
  3. For elaborate of concrete piles requires technical supervision and a heavy driven machine.
  4. They must be reinforced without handling stress.

What is timber piles?

Timber piles is also a type of foundation system. Timbers are used for centuries to support buildings and other structures. Generally, these piles are made from wood and are driven into the ground to provide support and stability for the structure above. Timber piles have various advantages and disadvantages are given below.

Advantages of timber piles: –

  • Cost-effective

Timber piles are a cost-effective footing compared to another types of piles, such as concrete or steel piles. The cost of the material and installation of timber piles is generally lower than other foundations, This nature of timber piles are making it a popular choice for smaller projects and centuries. [Properties of brick]

  • Light weight

Timber piles are also light weight, so that reason we can easily transport one place to another places, and easy to install. That reason we can save time and money during construction of timber piles in civil engineering application.

  • Durable

The main advantages of timber piles are durability and longevity, some timber piles having uses for more than 100 years. That reason timber piles a reliable foundation for buildings and other structures.

  • Easy to install

Timber piles are workable it means easy to install, it has required less equipment and also unskilled labour work easily. Installation process of timber pile are easy so also reduce the time and reduce the cost of installation compared to another piles.

Conclusion, Advantages of timber piles.

  1. Timber Piles are economical.
  2. For elaborate of timber piles no supervision are required and easily driven as such there is great saving in time in executing the piling work.
  3. Because of their elasticity timber piles can be recommended for sites where piles are likely to be subjected to un-usually lateral forces.
  4. They are not required for very heavy machine.
  5. Timber piles process to be economical for supporting light structure only.

Disadvantages of timber piles: –

  • Susceptible of rot and decay.

Timber piles tend to rot and decay over time when exposed to moisture or moist soil conditions.

  • Vulnerable to insect infestation

Termites and other insects which bore holes in the wood. Like insects are sensitive to infection. These insects also damage to the foundation and above super structure.

  • Limited load-bearing capacity

Timber piles have a low load bearing capacity compared to another type of foundation, like a concrete pile or steel pile. and its unsuitable for heavier structures because heavier or large structure require better support and stability.

  • Difficult to inspect.

Timber piles are difficult for inspection of damages and deterioration. because they are usually buried underground. So that it’s a very challenging to identify issues in foundation, Due to which repair cost are increased according to safety hazards.

  • Limited length

Length of timber piles is limited due to transportation obstruction, and its affect the depth of the foundation. long timbers are required more steel reinforcement and its add the overall cost of construction.

Conclusion, Disadvantages of timber piles.

  • Timber piles have low bearing capacity.
  • They are liable to decay by insects.
  • Timber piles must be cut-off below the permanent water table to prevent their decay.
  • For filling up ground level timber piles are not recommended.
  • On account of their restricted length, they cannot be used for jobs where long piles are needed.
  • Timber piles are supported for light structure.

What is composite piles?

This is a type of pile construction in which piles of two different material are driven one ever the other to enable then to act together to perform the function of a single piles.

These piles have a combined advantages because in composite pile made of two or more materials. and it provide better structural performance and enhanced the pile durability or stability. composite piles are made by combined materials such as concrete, steel, fiberglass, or timber. Composite piles have different advantages and disadvantages that must be considered when selecting the accurate foundation type for a construction project.

Advantages and disadvantages of piles
Advantages and disadvantages of piles

Advantages of composite piles.

  • High strength

composite pile has a higher strength according to the ratio of weight to another foundation because other foundation steel pile and concrete pile are very heavy. In light weight structure we used this pile, and it can also support for heavier structures. The combination of two or more than two materials provide enhanced structural performance, or it allow for greater load bearing capacity.

  • Corrosion resistance

Composite piles are made of more than two materials so it have highly resistant to corrosion and other forms of detorsion and it also suitable for any environmental conditions. Because minimum wear and tear along the time duration so increase the lifespan of the foundation and reduce maintenance costs.

  • Versatile

Composite piles are versatile in nature. Versatile nature can be customized to special project by selecting the proper combination of material accordingly to their requirements, like a greater flexibility in design and construction. it is suitable for a wide range of applications.

  • Lightweight

These pile are light weight in nature, so we can easily transport & install from one place to another place. Easy to install so save time and money during construction.  and minimize the impact on surrounding environment. [Properties of brick]

  • Durable

Composite piles have a long lifespan and are highly resistant to wear and tear, making them a reliable foundation system for buildings and other structures.

Conclusion, Advantages of composite piles.

  1. Reduced the cost of excavation for use in composite piles.
  2. The long pile length reduced the cost of construction.
  3. For the use of composite piles time are also reduced.

Disadvantages of composite piles.

  • Cost

Composite piles are generally more expensive than other foundation due to the uses of multiple materials and more skilled worker and expensive machine are required to the manufacturing process. So that reason increases the overall cost of the construction project. [Chain Surveying]

  • Complex manufacturing process

Process of construction of composite piles is very difficult and complex. Its required more expensive equipment and special expertise to handle the overall construction process. This process increases the time and cost of project.

  • Limited availability

Composite piles are not easily available in all areas. Its available a specific areas and certain construction project.

  • Environmental impact

In the construction/manufacturing of composite pile are not easy heavy equipment and more material are required so it impact the environmental. This environment impact can be reduced through the use of construction materials and production methods.

  • Limited inspection

Composite piles are typically buried in underground, so it is very difficult and challenging to inspection and identify the issues of foundation piles. According to safety risk of overall its very costlier for repairs.

Conclusion, Disadvantages of composite piles.

  1. In a composite pile, Providing the joint it is very difficult to connect between two different materials.
  2. For achieve superior quality highly skilled, supervision is required.

Notes – It should be carefully considered when selecting the appropriate foundation type for a construction project.

What is steel piles?

This type of piles is made of steel are known as steel piles. Steel pile foundation are generally used in heavy construction. because steel pile is supporting very heavy load and provide better stability of construction project. The construction of steel pile are two types cast in situ and precast according to their site requirement. its either be driven into the ground and installed in precast. There are different advantages and disadvantages of steel piles so must be considered when selecting proper foundation of construction project. [Chain Surveying]

Advantages of steel pile.

  • High strength

Compare to another piles steel piles have a high strength accordingly to their weight ratio and it can support heavy loads. This pile is very important for supporting structures. Which require high load bearing capacity.

  • Durability

Steel is a long-lasting material life of steel is generally 100 years so using of steel in piles properties of steel piles are enhanced like a durability and environment exposed condition so withstand tuff environmental conditions like extreme temperatures, moisture, and corrosion.

  • Versatility

Steel piles can be used in various type of soil condition and different-different type of construction project. making them a versatile option for foundation systems.

  • Speed of installation

Steel piles are easy to install using their specialized equipment and it’s also reduced the consumption of time and money.

  • Cost-effective

Steel are expensive but overall properties of steel piles are high in using of less material, so it is not costlier than other type of foundation, such as concrete piles, due to their properties of installation and durability is a cost effective.

Conclusion, Advantages of steel pile.

  1. It has a large bearing capacity.
  2. One steel pile is carrying a load of almost 100 tons so large building structures and heavy loads are used to build the steel pile.
  3. Less soil volume is displaced for the driven of the steel pile.
  4. It is easily penetrated by a stiff layer and stands for rough handling.
  5. It provides a strong and durable foundation.

Disadvantages of steel pile.

  • Corrosion

Steel piles are easily affected to corrosion, and it weakens the footing over the time period. It can take a lot of money to repair and maintenance of footing. [Chain Surveying]

  • Limited length

When made of a steel in steel plant, then Steel is made of a specify length and size according to their stability like transport and depend upon the capacity to plant. So, piles have a limited length and it require additional splicing to desire a design depth of a foundation. This splicing process are increase the cost and installation process of steel piles.

  • Environmental impact

Manufacturing of steel and steel pile are impact of environment because they are required high energy and nature raw material to production of steel and steel piles. This impact can be reduced by the using of selection of good materials and better manufacturing methods. [Chain Surveying]

  • Noise and vibration

The construction of steel pile is creating a noise and high vibration. They can disturb and affect the nearby residents.

  • Difficulty of removal

If any condition creates to remove the pile than very difficult costlier, and more manpower are used due to its durability any sustainability. scrab value of this pile are naggable.

Conclusion, Disadvantages of steel piles.

  1. Easily damaged due to corrosion.
  2. For the comparison of friction pile it is less effective.
  3. Steel piles are costly than other types of piles. [Properties of brick]

Steel pile should be selecting a carefully, because only selecting of this pile overall budget project are costlier. So, we select by carefully. Mainly we select a pile foundation because he bears a high capacity of structure.

Some important Points: –

  1. For fill up ground level timber piles are not recommended.
  2. Steel piles have large bearing capacity.
  3. Steel piles are easily damaged due to corrosion.
  4. Concrete piles are widely used in foundation.

FAQ’s: –

Question 01. Types of concrete piles.

Answer – Concrete piles are categories between different types as given below:-

Cast-In situ piles, Precast piles, Prestressed piles.

Question 02. Which piles are most widely used.

Answer – Generally concrete piles  (Cast-In situ piles) are used widely for any type of structure due to its have variation of strength are available.

Question 03. What are the advantages of a precast pile?

Answer – Advantages of pre-cast pile is environment friendly, faster foundation time, highest quality, effective cost, load test etc.

Question 04. Disadvantages of steel piles.

Answer – Due to corrosion it is easily damaged, costly, less effective.

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